Note: Science does not do anything.
- Logical Truths: These must be accepted as foundational presuppositions in order for us to engage in any scientific study, so we clearly can’t use science to prove logic. In fact it is the other way around. We need logic to make sense of science. My wife cannot be pregnant and not pregnant at the same time and same sense. A truth cannot be false at the same time as it is true. If all mothers are women, then every mother we meet must of necessity be a woman. There is no escape from this. These are logical truths that science relies upon.
- Metaphysical Truths: Some truths about the nature of the world (such as whether or not the external world is what we think it is, our freewill and ourselves) cannot be determined through the use of the hard sciences. Your personal identity, your sense of self and personhood is not found in your DNA alone.
- Moral and Ethical Truths: Science cannot tell us what is morally virtuous or vile. It tells us what “is.” But it does not tell us what “ought to be” (related to moral judgments). Science can tell you who died, how he died and what way he was killed. But it cannot tell you if he was murdered–it cannot tell you if it was wrong to kill him. Sam Harris and many others tried but failed to do this.
- Scientific Truths: Science itself is based on assumptions that can’t be proven scientifically. Nature is orderly it follows regularity, pattern, and structure–these must be true for any science to work at all. The very foundations for most scientific theories are based on presuppositional, epistemological claims about truth, reality and the nature of the world as we know it
- Mathematical Truths: We cannot know with 100% certainty that the next time we multiply 100 X 100 the answer will always be 10,000 . The Pythagorean theorem and other principles help us to understand science . These are mathematical laws that we cannot know will work using science alone. In fact we need math to make sense of science, not the other way around.
- Conscience Truths: Scientific analysis can never tell us what “what it is like” to experience love or hate or betrayal. MRI or CAT scans of our brains will not produce data on this. This is private and personal knowledge that cannot be gained by a scientist. Scientists and scholars call it, Qualia. It is the nature of experience itself that does not lend itself to a scientific third person analysis. By the way, the idea “I cannot believe anything that is non-physical,” is itself a non-physical thing! This is what we call a contradictory statement.
- Literary Truths. We cannot know by science alone that Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Fin was a more interesting character than Homer’s Agamemnon. Literary truths require analysis, but not the same kind that rocks, organs or comets do.
- Scientific Physical Laws: There are laws and equations built in the very foundation of the universe, such as, thermodynamics, electromagnetism, the strong force, the weak force and gravity—which most cosmologists tell us were present in the singularity over 13 billion years ago. These are what make science work, but science alone cannot explain them.
- Forgiveness and Peace. Study science all you want, and you will not be one step closer to finding forgiveness or peace for your sins and the people you hurt with biology or chemistry alone.
- Purpose and Hope. You cannot find the purpose of all of life, and your life in particular with scientific analysis alone. Scientific research can confirm that lives with purpose are more lasting, but it does not tell us what that purpose is.