Where Does the Information in DNA Come From?
This is a repost of a post I put together earlier in the year and I am reposting it again because it really fits in with a number of posts that I have recently posted.
There have been a lot of new discoveries made within Genetics and specifically regarding DNA as of the last few years. Most people are not aware of the complexities that are only now beginning to be understood and how these complexities seriously call into question the Theory of Evolution wherein all life that we see here on earth is deemed to have been produced by random chance. Because of what we have been taught about the Theory of Evolution, at first appearances, this may seem to be a logical assumption but when one starts to look at the processes that are involved within single cells which includes the DNA information that controls and builds the replication processes, the probability of random change bringing forth life stretches the boundaries of probability to unattainable limits.
For a detailed overview on the difficulties that the Theory of Evolution is currently facing and a look at what creationism and intelligent design is proposing, I would recommend that you take a look at my “Creation or Evolution?” page.
The repost of my original post continues below.
Have you ever seriously looked at what Science is now showing us with regard to DNA? Have you ever taken the time to see what complexities are involved, how the processes have to be put together and the probabilities involved? The information presented in this post has been provided by three PhD’s. This is not conjecture, the information presented are scientific facts.
Douglas Axe is a molecular biologist and Director of Biologic Institute. He completed his PhD at Caltech and held postdoctoral and research scientist positions at the University of Cambridge, the Cambridge Medical Research Council Centre, and the Babraham Institute in Cambridge. He worked as a postdoctoral fellow at the Centre for Protein Engineering under the supervision of Alan Fersht of the University of Cambridge.
Stephen C. Meyer received his Ph.D. in the philosophy of science from the University of Cambridge. A former geophysicist and college professor, he now directs Discovery Institute’s Center for Science and Culture. He has authored most recently the New York Times best seller Darwin’s Doubt: The Explosive Origin of Animal Life and the Case for Intelligent Design (HarperOne, 2013) as well as Signature in the Cell: DNA and the Evidence for Intelligent Design (HarperOne, 2009), which was named a Book of the Year by the prestigious Times (of London) Literary Supplement in 2009.
James M. Tour, a synthetic organic chemist, received his Bachelor of Science degree in chemistry from Syracuse University, his Ph.D. in synthetic organic and organometallic chemistry from Purdue University, and postdoctoral training in synthetic organic chemistry at the University of Wisconsin and Stanford University. Dr. Tour is the T. T. and W. F. Chao Professor of Chemistry, Professor of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, and Professor of Computer Science at Rice University in Houston, Texas, United States.
With regard to where the information comes from in DNA, we have two options, the information in DNA comes about by purely undirected, unguided, purposeless material processes or as it has come to be known, Darwin’s Theory of Evolution or the information in DNA is the product of some kind of designing intelligence, or as it has come to be known, Intelligent Design. Let’s take a look at the subject matter.
To get an overview of the complexity that is involved with with these processes take a look at the following video.
Now lets look at the Information Enigma as discussed by molecular biologist Douglas Axe and Stephen Meyer.
Now just to make it interesting, let’s add further complexity with the introduction of irreducibly complexity via the Bacterial Flagellum.
Now let’s take a look at the probability of just one single protein forming by chance.
Based on the structural requirements of enzyme activity, molecular biologist Douglas Axe emphatically argued against a global-ascent model of the function landscape in which incremental improvements of an arbitrary starting sequence “lead to a globally optimal final sequence with reasonably high probability”. For a protein made from scratch in a prebiotic soup, the odds of finding such globally optimal solutions are infinitesimally small- somewhere between 1 in 10exp140 and 1 in 10exp164 for a 150 amino acid long sequence if we factor in the probabilities of forming peptide bonds and of incorporating only left handed amino acids.
Per Bacterial Species
Based on analysis of the genomes of 447 bacterial species, the projected number of different domain structures per species averages 991. Comparing this to the number of pathways by which metabolic processes are carried out, which is around 263 for E. coli, provides a rough figure of three or four new domain folds being needed, on average, for every new metabolic pathway. In order to accomplish this successfully, an evolutionary search would need to be capable of locating sequences that amount to anything from one in 10^159 to one in 10^308 possibilities, something the neo-Darwinian model falls short of by a very wide margin.”
One Single Cell
“We have no idea how the molecules that compose living systems could have been devised such that they would work in concert to fulfill biology’s functions. We have no idea how the basic set of molecules, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins, were made and how they could have coupled into the proper sequences, and then transformed into the ordered assemblies until there was the construction of a complex biological system, and eventually to that first cell.
Nobody has any idea how this was done when using our commonly understood mechanisms of chemical science. Those that say they understand are generally wholly uninformed regarding chemical synthesis. Those that say “Oh, this is well worked out,” they know nothing, nothing about chemical synthesis – Nothing!
Further cluelessness – From a synthetic chemical perspective, neither I nor any of my colleagues can fathom a prebiotic molecular route to construction of a complex system. We cannot figure out the prebiotic routes to the basic building blocks of life: carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. Chemists are collectively bewildered. Hence I say that no chemist understands prebiotic synthesis of the requisite building blocks let alone their assembly into a complex system.
That’s how clueless we are. I’ve asked all of my colleagues – National Academy members, Nobel Prize winners -I sit with them in offices; nobody understands this. So if your professors say it’s all worked out, your teachers say it’s all worked out, they don’t know what they’re talking about. It is not worked out. You cannot just refer this to somebody else; they don’t know what they’re talking about.”
This is a quotation taken from James Tour – one of the top ten leading chemists in the world, during his lecture on The Origin of Life: An Inside Story – March 2016 Lecture with James Tour, which you can view directly below.
Intelligence Design is the theory that life, or the universe, cannot have arisen by chance and was designed and created by some intelligent entity , whom I personally call Jesus Christ, Jesus being one of the three consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as “one God in three Divine Persons” of the Christian Trinity.
That’s what I have determined, but what do you think now that you’ve looked at the evidence?