Jesus in the Old Testament – Revisited

Jesus in the Old Testament

God appears in the Old Testament in different ways: as an angel of the Lord (Acts 7:30-32; Exodus 3:2; Judges 2:1), apparently in physical form (Gen. 3:8; Exodus 24:9-11), in visions and dreams (Num. 12:6-8), and in flame (Judges 13:20-21). However, there are verses that say that you can’t see God: Exodus 33:20; John 1:18). If this is so, then is there a contradiction in the Bible?  No, there isn’t.

These verses below are taken from the New American Standard Bible. Please note that “LORD” is equivalent to YHWH, Yahweh, and Jehovah which is the name of God.

Plurality of God

  • Gen. 1:26, “Then God said, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness…”
  • Gen. 19:24, “Then the LORD rained on Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the LORD out of heaven.”
  • Amos 4:10-11, “‘I sent a plague among you after the manner of Egypt; I slew your young men by the sword along with your captured horses, and I made the stench of your camp rise up in your nostrils; yet you have not returned to Me,’ declares the LORD. ‘I overthrew you as God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah…'”
  • Isaiah 44:6, “Thus says the LORD, the King of Israel and his Redeemer, the LORD of hosts: ‘I am the first and I am the last, and there is no God besides me…‘” See also, Isaiah 48:16.

Appearances of God

  • Gen. 17:1, “Now when Abram was ninety-nine years old, the LORD appeared to Abram and said to him, ‘I am God Almighty; walk before Me, and be blameless.'”
  • Gen. 18:1, “Now the LORD appeared to him by the oaks of Mamre, while he was sitting at the tent door in the heat of the day.”
  • Ex. 6:2-3, “God spoke further to Moses and said to him, ‘I am the LORD; and I appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as God Almighty, but by My name LORD I did not make myself known to them.'”
  • Exodus 24:9-11, “Then Moses went up with Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel, and they saw the God of Israel; and under His feet there appeared to be a pavement of sapphire, as clear as the sky itself. Yet He did not stretch out His hand against the nobles of the sons of Israel; and they beheld God, and they ate and drank.”
  • Exodus 33:11, “Thus the LORD used to speak to Moses face to face, just as a man speaks to his friend…”
  • Num. 12:6-8, “He [God] said, “Hear now My words: If there is a prophet among you, I, the LORD, shall make Myself known to him in a vision. I shall speak with him in a dream. Not so, with My servant Moses, He is faithful in all My household; with him I speak mouth to mouth, even openly, and not in dark sayings, and he beholds the form of the LORD…”
  • Acts 7:2, “And he [Stephen] said, “Hear me, brethren and fathers! The God of glory appeared to our father Abraham when he was in Mesopotamia, before he lived in Haran…”

Can’t See God

  • Exodus 33:20, “But He [God] said, ‘You cannot see My face, for no man can see Me and live!'”
  • John 1:18, “No man has seen God at any time; the only begotten God, who is in the bosom of the Father; He has explained Him.”
  • 1 Tim. 6:16, “[God] who alone possesses immortality and dwells in unapproachable light; whom no man has seen or can see.”
  • John 6:46, “Not that any man has seen the Father except the One who is from God; He has seen the Father.”

It is evident from the above scriptures that God was seen.  But, considering the “can’t-see-God” verses, some would understandably argue that people have not seen God; otherwise, there would be a contradiction in the Bible. A possible explanation for this is that people were seeing visions, or dreams, or the Angel of the LORD (Num. 22:22-26; Judges 13:1-21). But the problem is that the verses cited above do not say vision, dream, or Angel of the LORD. They say that people saw God (Exodus 24:9-11), that God was seen, and that He appeared as God Almighty (Ex. 6:2-3).

At first, this may be difficult to understand.  God Almighty was seen (Ex. 6:2-3) which means it was not the Angel of the Lord; for an angel is not God Almighty, and at least Moses saw God, not in a vision or dream, as the LORD Himself attests in Num. 12:6-8.  If these verses mean what they say, then we naturally assume we have a contradiction. Actually, the contradiction exists in our understanding – not in the Bible – which is the case with most alleged biblical contradictions.


  • John 8:58, “Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was born, I am.”
  • Exodus 3:14, “And God said to Moses, ‘I AM WHO I AM’; and He said, ‘Thus you shall say to the sons of Israel, ‘I AM has sent me to you.'”
  • Zech. 12:10, “And I [God] will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication, so that they will look on Me whom they have pierced; and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son…”

The solution is relatively simple. If the people of the OT were seeing God, the Almighty God, and Jesus said that no one has ever seen the Father (John 6:46), then they were seeing God Almighty but not the Father.  It was someone else in the Godhead. They were seeing the Word before He became incarnate.  In other words, they were seeing Jesus – compare John 8:58 with Exodus 3:14 above.

Because God is a Trinity, then John 1:18 is not a problem because, in John chapter one, John writes about the Word (Jesus) and God (the Father). In verse 14 it says the Word became flesh.  In verse 18 it says no one has seen God. Since Jesus is the Word, God then, refers to the Father; and the apparent contradiction is easily resolved, especially when this is examined in the light of Jesus’ words in John 6:46 where He said that no one has ever seen the Father. Therefore, Almighty God was seen but not the Father. It was Jesus before His incarnation. This correlates with the fact that there is more than one person in the Godhead (Father, Son, Holy Spirit).

It is interesting to note that the appearances of the “Angel of the Lord” cease after the incarnation of Christ. Angels are mentioned numerous times in the New Testament, but “the angel of the Lord” is never mentioned in the New Testament after the birth of Christ.

An interesting followup link is

Plus an “after published” followup link that also addresses this same topic:

Source: “extracts” from and


  1. This is a good presentation of how Scripture is to be understood Bruce, that is as a whole and not in separate parts. As I read this my thought turned to Genesis 32 and Jacob and a question; did Jacob wrestle with our Lord? Thank you brother for your insightful posts, may our Father God bless you.


    • Hi Alan, I’m thinking that Jacob answered that question himself in Genesis 32:30, so I would say yes, that was Jesus before His incarnation. But that struggle was more than just physical, I’m thinking it was a needed recognition of his own limitations and tendencies that Jacob had to come to terms with, much like we all do. One can only imagine how that would impact the rest of Jacob’s life. And may our Father God bless you and yours also Alan.

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  2. I take the seeing of The Lord in the Old Testament as being an actual event, unless it s specifically stated as being in a vision or dream. Adam and Eve actually saw The Lord’s face, but their disobedience removed the face of God from us.

    Afterwards, He was seen in other forms, burning bush, his back, dust, a pillar of fire, etc.

    After the 400 years silence, he sent God the Son, the face and voice of God, to bring the message of salvation. It was after the crucifixion, resurrection and ascension that we no longer saw The Lord, mentioned in James and John.

    But that is just my take.

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